Even with their ubiquity, there remains some ambiguity as to what exactly constitutes a PPP. For this article, however, we focus on a more speciﬁc, emerging form of PPP that gives the private sector a greater role in decision making and assumption of risk in the joint venture.
The private sector has long been involved in infrastructure projects, under arrangements by which the private sector, under contract, designs and builds facilities (or roads) and then turns them over to the government to operate and maintain. Our speciﬁc focus is on long-term partnerships involving the private delivery of public infrastructure services. Thus, Public–private partnerships are ongoing agreements between government and private sector organizations in which the private organization participates in the decision-making and production of a public good or service that has traditionally been provided by the public sector and in which the private sector shares the risk of that production.
Three critical conditions characterize this conception of these emerging PPPs:
- The relationship between the public and the private sector organization is long term, rather than a one-time relationship, such as might occur in a conventional contract for a good or service (such as oﬃce products or secretarial assistance).
- The private sector cooperates in both the decision making as to how best to provide a public good or service and the production and delivery of that good or service, which normally have been the domain of the public sector.
- The relationship involves a negotiated allocation of risk with the private sector instead of government bearing most of the risk.
These emerging forms of PPPs take a variety of forms that reﬂect varying degrees of private involvement, including design, build, and operate; build, own, operate, and transfer; and design, build, ﬁnance, and operate.
Next time we will explore important elements of successful conventional contracting including arm’s-length negotiations, transparency, clear specifications of the good or service being bought, and specific evaluation criteria.